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References FAQ

References FAQ

Basic questions

In-text citations, paraphrases

Formal rules

Translation, cross-reference, interview

Reference list

 

Basic questions

What is a reference/citation?

Other author’s ideas, thoughts in your essay, either verbatim or paraphrased (summarised, in your own words). In the text you must provide the source (author, year) and in the reference list, at the end of your essay, all relevant data of the cited work. Doing so you can avoid plagiarism and makes the work retrievable by others.

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What is a paraphrase?

Summarising the thoughts of others with your own words. As a general scientific practice create a paraphrase for quotations that are longer than 3-5 sentences.

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What is plagiarism?

“Taking over the ideas, methods, or written words of another, without acknowledgment and with the intention that they be taken as the work of the deceiver.” (American Association of University Professors, 1989) Examples of plagiarism

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What is a DOI?

Digital Object Identifier, a unique identifier for electronic documents. If a study has a DOI, provide this as a link, making a permanent access to the document. You can check DOI numbers at CrossRef system.

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Does Corvinus have a unified reference standard?

None. APA style is commonly used, but always check the requirements in the Study and Examination Regulations or consult with your supervisor.

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How is plagiarism checked at Corvinus?

The University subscribes to a text similarity checker called Turnitin. All theses are checked using this software.

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In-text citations, paraphrases

What is an in-text citation, what data elements are in brackets?

In-text citations are verbatim passages and paraphrases in the essay.

Necessary data elements are:

  • For verbatim citations: author’s surname, publication year of the cited work and page number.
  • For paraphrases: author’s surname and the publication year of the cited work.

At the end of your essay, the list of references is created from in-text citations.

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How to insert a paraphrase into the text?

Write an introduction, make it clear that another author’s thoughts come. At the end of the paraphrase provide the author’s surname and the publication year of the cited work in brackets.

For narrative citation, include the author’s surname in the text and add the publication year in brackets.

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If the source refers to a longer text, should the source be indicated after each sentence?

If the beginning and the end of the paraphrase is unambiguous, it is not necessary to give the source sentence by sentence. If you break the paraphrase with text from other sources, indicate the appropriate source at the end of each paraphrase. However, we recommend that for a chapter use several different sources do not base on just one work.

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Formal rules

What formal rules apply to references?

You should create the reference list according to an international standard. The most commonly used standard in the social sciences is the APA. For theses, the APA style is recommended by the Study and Examination Regulations but check it always with your supervisor.

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When are quotation marks necessary?

If you copy a verbatim text into your essay. After the citation provide the author’s surname, the publication year and the page number of the cited work in brackets.

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What about a footnote citation?

The footnote breaks the line of thought, adds some explanation or complementary information, so we recommend that you use it for that purpose. However, in Oxford citation style footnotes are used for in-text citations. In the footnote provide the author’s surname, the publication year and the page number of the cited work. For paraphrases add the author’s surname and the publication year of the cited work.

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How to cite if there is no author?

It is not advisable to cite works without an author, because their scientific credibility is questionable. If the publishing body (e.g. IMF, IBRD) or the name of the website (Portfolio) is specified, use that data as author. E.g.: PORTFOLIO (2013) If you can’t find this information either, sort the reference by title in the reference list.

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How to cite figures and tables?

The original source must be presented under figures and tables in the same way as for in-text citations. If you create the figure or table based on primary data, it is not necessary to indicate that it is your own work, but provide the source of the data under the table and in the reference list.

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Is it necessary to present accessed date all the time?

It is mandatory when citing websites or web pages. Don’t forget to provide it.

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Should I translate the source data elements based on the standard (e.g. pp, ed., in)?

There is no unified rule on this, but according to the general practice the translation is not necessary. Check it with your supervisor.

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Translation, cross-reference, interview

What is a cross-reference (indirect reference, citing citations)?

Basically, avoid it. Cross-reference is if you cite something that has been cited in another work, without checking the original source.

If unavoidable, include both the author and publication year of the cited and citing work in the text in brackets, but only the citing work in the reference list.

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How to cite a text translated by me?

Your own translation is not considered as verbatim citation. Do not use quotation marks and it is not necessary to indicate that it is your own translation. Add the author’s surname and the publication year at the end of the translation in brackets. Adding page number of the original work is optional.

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How to cite an interview?

An interview is not considered as retrievable data, i.e. it should not be included in the reference list, but the interview can be cited in the text as personal communication. The current edition of APA style (p. 278) provides further information on how to cite personal communication.

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Reference list

What is a reference list?

List of citations used in verbatim form or paraphrased in the text. Sort the publications alphabetically by author’s name or, in the absence of an author, by title.

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What is a bibliography?

A list of all documents that were used but not necessarily cited or paraphrased in the text. It is broader than the reference list.

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Do I need to create a reference list or a bibliography?

Generally a reference list, but check the requirements in the Study and Examination Regulations or consult with your supervisor.

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What data elements are compulsory at different document types?

(The order of the data elements depends on the reference standard.)

  • Required data for books: Author, title, publisher, publication year, (edition number).
  • Required data for book chapters: Author, chapter title, publication year, In, editor’s name, book title, page number, publisher.
  • Required data for journal articles: Author, publication year, article title. Journal title, volume(issue), page number from-to. DOI or URL.
  • Required data for web content: Author’s name (if not available, the name of the website), publication year, title, URL, accessed date.

For formal requirements check the guide References by document type.

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What is the easiest way to create a reference list?

Use a reference manager software e.g. Zotero, Mendeley, EndNote Web (available with Web of Science subscription from the university network).

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If I cite the same work more times, how should it be listed in the reference list?

Put it only once in the reference list even you have used it more times.

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In case of using different works from the same author and from the same year, how should I put them in the reference list?

To distinguish them add a, b, c etc. after the year both at in-text citations and in the reference list.

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GEN.:2024.02.25. - 05:35:02