Széchenyi 2020
Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem ×


For Stipendium Hungaricum Applicants

Dear Applicant,

thank you for your interest in our Doctoral School! 
If you would like to apply to either our Communication Science Doctoral Program or our Sociology Doctoral Program via the Stipendium Hungaricum Program ,
please send

  • a professional CV
  • a project proposal (10 000 – 20 000 characters)
  • a motivation letter

in a SINGLE PDF file to Mr. László Kálmán ( ) and please clearly state which Doctoral Program you are applying for. 
These documents are the necessary condition for issuing the Letter of Endorsement supporting your application. As of 2019 this is the document we provide to Applicants, instead of the Recommendation Letter issued by a potential supervisor.
Please note that application materials are accepted only until 10 January 2021 (14:00 Central European Time).

Evaluation criteria of the admission exam

CriteriaMaximum points
Prior achievement
Masters education / professional experience consistent with knowledge and competence expected by the Doctoral School10
Former research experience, publications*10
Research plan
Quality and elaborateness / detailedness of document**20
Appropriateness of research concept in regard to the announced subjects and researches of the Doctoral School10
Feasibility and relevance of research10
Oral examination
English language and professional communication skills20
Performance during oral examination (competence, debating skills, independence, flexibility)20

*Scientific Student Association and National Scientific Student Association papers and achievements to be considered here. 

**The effort made in developing the research plan should be assessed irrespective of relevance and feasibility.

Admission procedure for other applicants

The admission procedure

The Doctoral School expects applicants to have some prior research experience which may be substantiated in the research proposal. In the application, applicants must clearly state the Doctoral Program they are applying for.

If the applicant is applying for both programs, the head of the Doctoral School and the admissions committee members will decide which program is responsible for conducting the admissions process. If both programs consider themselves competent, the applicant may participate in the admission process of both programs. In this case, the applicant may submit two research plans.  

For the application, applicants must submit a research proposal in English, outlining the research topic. The length of the proposal must be 10 000 – 20 000 characters.  It shall feature the motivation, the theme, the disciplinary context and the delineation of the proposed research, the topics to be included in the literature review as well as the research objectives and the proposed methodological approach. 

The research proposal is evaluated by the admission committee prior to the oral exam. During the oral interview a discussion takes place on the answers given to the questions relating to the proposal outlining the research topic, furthermore it is assessed whether the applicant’s intellectual capacities are suitable for scientific work. The admission exam is conducted in English.

Evaluation criteria of the admission exam

CriteriaMaximum points
Prior achievement
Masters education / professional experience consistent with knowledge and competence expected by the Doctoral School10
Former research experience, publications*10
Research plan
Quality and elaborateness / detailedness of document**20
Appropriateness of research concept in regard to the announced subjects and researches of the Doctoral School10
Feasibility and relevance of research10
Oral examination
English language and professional communication skills20
Performance during oral examination (competence, debating skills, independence, flexibility)20

*Scientific Student Association and National Scientific Student Association papers and achievements to be considered here. 

**The effort made in developing the research plan should be assessed irrespective of relevance and feasibility.

Project proposals – Communication Science Doctoral Program

deepFAKEnews: New ways of information manipulation

Proposed by Ágnes Veszelszki, Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest


With the change in the role of the print media and the growing importance of citizen journalism, news competition has accelerated, and both professional content producers and content creators are facing new ways of information manipulation. The applicant investigates the implications of the so-called data capitalism, as well as the ways how the users of (social) media are influenced by misleading information (fake news, pseudo-scientific content, conspiracy theories, deepfake), and what the media user can do against manipulative information.


Amazeen, M. A. – Bucy, E. P. 2019: Conferring resistance to digital disinformation: The inoculating influence of procedural news knowledge. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 63: 415–432. 

Gelfert, Axel 2018: Fake News: A Definition. Informal Logic 38/1: 84–117. 

Rizeq, Jala – Flora, David B. – Toplak, Maggie E. 2020: An examination of the underlying dimensional structure of three domains of contaminated mindware: paranormal beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, and anti-science attitudes. Thinking & Reasoning. DOI: 10.1080/13546783.2020.1759688 

Veszelszki, Ágnes 2018: Like Economy: What is the Economic Value of Likes? Society and Economy 40/3: 417–429. DOI: 10.1556/204.2018.40.3.8 

Vraga, Emily K. – Tully, Melissa – Bode, Leticia 2020: Empowering Users to Respond to Misinformation about Covid-19. Media and Communication 8/2: 475–479. DOI: 10.17645/mac.v8i2.3200

Contemporary forms of user participation in the digital media

Proposed by Rita Glózer PhD, associate professor, Department of Communication and Media Studies, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Pécs


As reflected in several media theories, users’ participation has become a central phenomenon of the digital media over the last decades. Considering the changing roles of media users, participatory culture theory focuses on the ways private persons (amateurs) participate in producing media content. While the concept is increasingly debated because of its ideological basis, and large number of scientific analysis criticizes the existing (mainstream) forms of participating as well, the creative, unique and unexpected forms of participation have multiplied. Adopting the cultural studies approach, the concept of participatory culture and its critiques (mainly from the fields of critical theory and the political economy of the media) provide a complex theoretical framework for investigating and interpreting newest forms of users’ participation on digital media platforms.


JENKINS, HENRY 2006. Convergence Culture. Where Old and New Media Collide. New York – London, New York University Press. 

FUCHS, CHRISTIAN 2014. Social Media: A Critical Introduction. London, Sage 

VAN DIJCK, JOSÉ 2013. The Culture of Connectivity. A Critical History of Social Media. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 

Glózer Rita (2020): Instavers. Médiakutató 20(1) 67-77. 

Glózer Rita (2016): Internetes paródiavideók és ifjúsági médiahasználat. Replika 100(5) 131-150. 

Glózer Rita (2015): Részvétel és kollaboráció az új médiában. Replika 90-91(1-2) 117-139

Discourses and discursive strategies in the Hungarian public sphere

Proposed by Rita Glózer PhD, associate professor, Department of Communication and Media Studies, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Pécs


Discourses are involved in formulation and reproduction of socially significant topics, interpretations of and attitudes towards them. Thereby, investigations of discourses both in the public and private spheres encourage a deeper understanding of how key issues in society are shaped. Discourse analytical approaches offer both context-sensitive theoretical frameworks and appropriate sets of data collection methods and analytical tools for investigating text corpuses and strategies of social actors as well. Considering the basically strategic nature of social discourses, this approach can be successfully applied in examinations of current issues (racism, populist nationalism, construction of identity) in today’s Hungarian public sphere.


Wodak, Ruth – Meyer, Michael eds. (2016): Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (Introducing Qualitative Methods series) SAGE 

Gee, James Paul – Handford, Michael eds. (2014): The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Routledge 

Feischmidt Margit – Glózer Rita – Ilyés Zoltán – Kasznár Veronika Katalin – Zakariás Ildikó (2014): Nemzet a mindennapokban. Az újnacionalizmus populáris kultúrája. L’Harmattan, Budapest. 

Glózer Rita (2007): Diszkurzív módszerek in. Kovács Éva (szerk.): Közösségtanulmány. Budapest-Pécs, 260-268.

Figurative framing in discourse

Proposed by Réka Benczes, Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest


The role of metaphor and metonymy in shaping public discourse


Benczes, Réka. 2019. Visual metonymy and framing in political communication. In: Kristóf Nyíri and András Benedek (eds.), Image and Metaphor in the New Century: Perspectives on Visual Learning, vol. 3. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences & Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 17–28. 

Benczes, Réka and Kate Burridge. 2018. Speaking of disease and death. In: Keith Allan (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Taboo Words and Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 61–76. 

Benczes, István and Réka Benczes. 2018. From financial support package via rescue aid to bailout: Framing the management of the Greek sovereign debt crisis. Society and Economy 40 (3): 431-445.

Cognitive semantics and word-formation

Proposed by Réka Benczes, Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest


How word meaning reflects our conceptualizations about the world


Benczes, Réka. 2006. Creative Compounding in English. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 

Benczes, Réka. 2019. Rhyme over Reason: Phonological Motivation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Benczes, Réka. 2019. Morphology and Lexical Semantics. In: Rochelle Lieber (ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.618

Project proposals – Sociology Doctoral Program

Attitudes of economic and social actors

Proposed by György Lengyel, Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest)


This broad topic is about the attitudes of economic and social actors, including elites, entrepreneurs and employees. The general questions are how do material, social and cultural resources influence attitudes and what is the role of attitudes in the formation of life chances. The main sites of our theoretically driven empirical research are the followings: 

– Elites, media and public opinion in the EU 

– Subjective well-being, dignity, aspirations and fears 

– Deliberative research on sustainable development 

Ideally the proposal in substantive terms is related to one of the problems above and relies among others on secondary analysis of surveys like WVS, EVS, ESS, SOEP or other data available in databanks. Qualitative research is also welcome where appropriate.

The proposal may be connected with the Mediatized EU research and other projects at CESR.


Lengyel Gy. 2012 Potential Entrepreneurs. CEST, Bp. Göncz B. et al.(eds) 2012 Migrants and the Hungarian Society. Dignity, Justice and Civic Integration. CESR, Bp. Best, H. et al. (eds) 2012 The Europe of Elites, OUP, Oxford

Social Futuring

Proposed by Zoltán Oszkár Szántó, Institute of Communication and Sociology, CUB

Description and Literature

Mixed methodological discourse analysis in organisational research

Proposed by Zsuzsanna Géring, Future of Higher Education Research Centre, Budapest Business School 


Discourse analysis can be treated both as a theoretical framework and as a methodological approach that concentrates on language in use and focuses on the functions that discourse plays in our social world at different (individual, interactive, and social) levels. Its field is complex and diverse from the examination of speech patterns in individual sentences to the examination of social power and suppression in clusters of news. This means that discourse analysis is not a singular methodological process but rather a collection of approaches and methodological tools with shared theoretical background. Nevertheless, none of these attributes indicates that it should be rendered solely to the qualitative paradigm. 

In our approach, mixed methodological discourse analysis is a methodological standpoint in the field of discourse analysis. Its main feature is the incorporation of quantitative and qualitative processes into the analysis of discourses. 

Applying discourse analyses in a mixed methods research study is appropriate when discourse in itself is the topic of the examination. That is, when the analysis of textual data is not a phase of the research with which we would like to gain information about something else, but when we would like to analyse the textual data exactly to understand how the actors produce meaning, identity, opposition, power relations, or how a given phenomenon is constructed in the given texts. 

We focus on especially the discursive strategies applied in organizational communication, especially in the higher education (HE) sector. One of our actual research examines the textual features and discursive structure of online public communication of higher education institutions (HEI). 

Interested PhD-students may join the recently launched research project titled ‘Future of business education’ (FK127972). This project aims to investigate what HEIs communicate on their websites about their social role and their approach to the future. We apply mixed methodological discourse analysis on a large corpus of internationally leading HEIs’ website-texts. 


Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., Khosravinik, M., Krzyzanowski, M., Mcenery T., & Wodak, R. (2008). A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press. Discourse & Society, 19, 273-306. doi: 10.1177/0957926508088962  

Géring Zs. (2015) Content versus discourse analysis. Examination of corporate social responsibility in companies’ homepage-texts. In SAGE Research Methods Cases. London, United Kingdom: SAGE Publications, Ltd. doi: 10.4135/978144627305014556732  

Johansen, C. B. – De Cock, B (2018). Ideologies of time: How elite corporate actors engage the future. Organization, 25, 186–204. doi: 10.1177/1350508417725592  

Subjective well-being, satisfaction and happiness among children and adults

Proposed by Dr Peter Robert, CSc


Studying (subjective) well-being has received a rising attention from the viewpoint of social, economic and political issues, particularly since the so-called Stiglitz report has been completed. For interested PhD candidates, an opportunity is offered to study satisfaction, happiness and its social determinants among children and / or among adult population. Two internationally comparative datasets are available for the purpose: 

a) Data on children aged between 8 and 16 

b) European Social Survey data, 1-9 rounds, biannually fielded until 2018 

The broad topic is narrowed and made more specific in discussion with the PhD candidate based on his/her interest and the availability of the data.

Children in school: Well-Being and beyond, project NN 15715 by NKFI, principal investigator: Peter Robert, TARKI Social Research Institute European Social Survey (ESS), international project, in Hungary fielded by TARKI Social Research Institute


Bradshaw, J. (2015). Subjective well-being and social policy: Can nations make their children happier? Child Indicators Research, 8, 1, 227-241. 

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 3, 542-575. 

Rees, G. and Main, G. (eds.) (2015). Children’s views on their lives and well-being in 15 countries: An initial report on the Children’s Worlds survey, 2013-14. York, UK: Children’s Worlds Project (ISCWeB). 

Róbert, P. and Szabó, L. (2020). Children’s Worlds National Report – Hungary 

Stiglitz, J. E., Sen, A., Fitoussi, J. P. (2009). Report by the Commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. Commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress, Paris

Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Work

Proposed by Lilla Vicsek, Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest


Our research team is investigating visions on the future of work and artificial intelligence and the role these visions play. The project’s approach goes beyond hyped, polarized popular views in the debate on the future of work, and maintains that these often downplay uncertainty and the role how the social can shape the technical. The project works with traditional sociological methods (mostly interviews), as well as with Future Studies methods. We are looking for a Ph.D. student who would be interested in pursuing a topic related to the focus of the project.

Visions of Artificial Intelligence and Society – funded by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund


Vicsek, L. (2020), “Artificial intelligence and the future of work – lessons from the sociology of expectations”, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. 

Boyd, R. and Holton, R.J. (2018), “Technology, innovation, employment and power: does robotics and artificial intelligence really mean social transformation?”, Journal of Sociology, Vol. 54 No. 3, pp. 331-345. 

Pulkka, V.-V. (2019), “This time may be a little different” – exploring the Finnish view on the future of work”, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 39 Nos 1/2, pp. 22-37.

Barriers to Parenting

Proposed by Ivett Szalma Corvinus University of Budapest, Department of Public Policy and Management; Centre for Social Sciences Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre of Excellence


Becoming a parent is an important life event which became more and more planed in most of people’s life course due to the modern contraception and infertility treatments in most of the developed countries (Dereuddre et al. 2016, Szalma and Djuendeva 2019). However, there are many modern family planning possibilities we have not reached that state in which all people come as close as possible to their desired number of children in most of the European countries. Especially, in the Eastern European region there are the greatest fertility gap between desired and realized children. For example, Spéder and Kapitány (2014) showed that comparing five European countries regarding the realization of childbearing intentions much lower chances were found in the Eastern European countries than in the Western European societies. The unrealized fertility intention seems to be a key aspect of post-communist fertility transition, which might have been explained by the fundamental social, economic and cultural transformation (Ridere and Buber 2018, Spéder and Kapitány 2014). 

Parenthood is revealed as an essentially fragmented status and one which is intertwined in complex ways with the biological, legal, cultural and political contexts in which discourses of parenthood are produced. Based on the different dimensions of entering or skipping parenthood we can see that there are different parenting regimes and one of the features of different parenting regimes are the barriers to enter and skip parenthood or keep parental status. It seems that Eastern European societies can be regarded a separate cluster in parenting regimes within Europe because of similar barriers to enter/skip parenthood and keep it. I expect PhD student whose aim is to reveal reveal the special features of Eastern European parenting regime and highlight the barriers in order to better understand its cultural roots.

I have three research projects at the Centre for Social Sciences Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre of Excellence. One is an NKFI project, titled: “Fertility knowledge and beliefs about fertility treatments among childless women and men in Hungary in European perspectives” In my second project I examine “Fathers’ roles in their non-resident children’s lives”. In my third research project I focus on fertility during Covid-19 period.


Dommermuth, L., Hohmann-Marriott, B., & Lappegård, T. (2017). Gender equality in the family and childbearing. Journal of Family Issues, 38(13): 1803–1824. 

Spéder Z, Kapitány B. (2014). Failure to realize fertility intentions: A key aspect of the post-communist fertility transition. Population Research and Policy Review, 33(3): 393-418. 

Szalma, I., and Djundeva. (2019) What Shapes Public Attitudes Towards Assisted Reproduction Technologies in Europe? Demográfia English Edition 62 (5): 45–75. 

Szalma, I. & Takács, J. (2015). Who remains childless? Unrealized fertility plans in Hungary. Czech Sociological Review 51(6): 1047–1075. 

Takács, J., Szalma, I., & Bartus, T. (2016). Social attitudes toward adoption by same-sex couples in Europe. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(7), 1787–1798.

History of migration In Central and Eastern Europe and the integration of the region into global migratory flows

Proposed by Attila Melegh, Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest


How discursive changes can be related to material processes and structures if we focus on Eastern and Central Europe. How migration has been structured in our closer region in a longer term period when there has been a massive decline in fertility as result of which ageing is going on rapidly? Are there are different developmental patterns in migration a region historically so much interwoven. Are there linkages to discursive changes being the prime concern of our analysis? We can analyze common and some diverging patterns and there has been an overall development toward to an intensifying unequal exchanges with more developed areas due to a massive economic opening up. This is happening via sending massive number of emigrants toward the West, while at the same time the countries in the region mainly take migrants from each other thus leading to demographic emptying. This fragility and the ongoing wave of asylum seekers seems to be a key driver of a shift toward the radicalization of demographic nationalisms in the region. Insufficient research or theoretical work has been done on the question of how these complex modes of integration develop historically. Migration flows are related to other social processes, which makes analysis difficult, but, more importantly, the analytical focus has been too narrow to further any subtle grasp of how the patterns of interrelated processes have changed in human history according to positions in a global system. There is a need to re-contextualize historically and regionally all of the major theories of migration that emerged over the course of the last three decades.


Attila Melegh (2013) Net migration and historical development in Southeastern Europe since 1950. Hungarian Historical Review 1, no. 3–4 (2012): 144–182 

Melegh, Attila – Papp Z., Attila (2018): Historical Links and Integration of Migrants from Neighbouring Countries in Hungary. In: Aimie Bouju – Andreas Edel (eds.): Similar but Different Inclusion and Exclusion of Immigrant Communities Sharing Similar Cultural Backgrounds with Their Host Societies. Population Europe Discussion Paper No. 8., pp.47-53. 

Melegh, Attila, Dóra Gábriel, Gabriella Gresits és Dalma Hámos (2018): Abandoned Hungarian workers and the political economy of care work in Austria. Review of Sociology of The Hungarian Sociological Association 28(4): 61-88″ 

Melegh A., Vancsó A., Mendly D., Hunyadi M. (2021) Positional Insecurity and the Hungarian Migration Policy. In: Ceccorulli M., Fassi E., Lucarelli S. (eds) The EU Migration System of Governance. The European Union in International Affairs. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Risk behaviour and leisure time among adolescents

Proposed by Zsuzsanna Elekes, Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest


After a long-run increase in adolescent’s substance use, new tendencies have appeared in several European countries: smoking, alcohol use and some forms of illicit drug use started to decrease. Several hypotheses exist in the literature to explain changes in youth’s risk behaviour: 

  • Internet use, social media use and its’ at-risk use have increased among young people. Outgoing forms of leisure time activities have decreased, and young people spend a significant part of their leisure time in their own or friends’ home. Their social life more and more occurs thorough the internet. These changes influence their substance use habit, while at-risk use of internet and social media network increase. 
  • The decrease in adolescent’s substance use might be a consequence of their increased health consciousness. Some survey results prove the increase in health consciousness of adult population. We don’t have too much information about adolescents health behaviour. 
  • The spread of new psychoactive drugs has reduced the use of alcohol and other drugs. Since about 2010 more and more data indicate the spread of new psychoactive drugs among Hungarian adolescents. Some Hungarian local studies resulted that the use of new psychoactive drugs is mostly widespread among people living in segregated settlements, in socially disadvantaged situation. They use low-priced but hazardous drugs to replace more expensive alcohol and other illicit drugs. 

In a five years research project we are planning to conduct different qualitative and quantitative researches to explore and understand changes in risk behaviours, leisure time activities, health consciousness of young people. Interested students may join any part of the program with their own interest and research question.


Baker D., Algorta G. P.(2016): The Relationship Between Online Social Networking and Depression: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking Volume 19, Number 11, 2016 

ESPAD (2019): ESPAD REPORT. Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. EMCDDA, Lisbon Inchley, 

J., Currie, D., Young, T., Samdal, O., Torsheim, T., Augustson, L., Mathison, F., Aleman-Diaz, A., Molcho, M., Weber, M., and Barnekow V. (2016): Growing up unequal. HBSC 2016 study (2013/2014 survey) Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 7. WHO Regional Office for Europe Geneva 

Parker, H. (2005): Normalization as a barometer: Recreational drug use and the consumption of leisure by younger Britons. Addiction Research and Theory. June 2005, 13(3): 205-215 

Room, R. (2015) Cultural aspects of and responses to addiction. In: El-Guebaly, N., Carrà, G. & Galanter, M., eds., Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives, pp. 107-114. Milan, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht & London: Springer. 

Tromholt M. (2016): The Facebook Experiment:Quitting Facebook Leads to Higher Levels of Well-Being Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking Volume 19, Number 11, 2016

Networks, Technology and Innovation

Proposed by László Lőrincz, Corvinus University, NeTI Lab & Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, ANet Lab, and Balázs Lengyel, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, ANet Lab & Corvinus University, NeTI Lab


We welcome research project proposals in the following fields: 

1. Statistical models of networks: how structural properties contribute to build-up and dissolution of large networks, such as online social networks, or supply-chain networks of firms. 

2. Organizational networks, skills and performance: analyzing the relationship between skills of employees, the network structure of their interactions, and firm performance 

3. The role of relational embeddedness in the development and dissolution of firms’ supplier-buyer relationships: analyzing the development of structural embeddedness (presence of common partners), firm ownership networks, mobility of employees and personal connections of managers. 

We can best support research methods of statistics / econometrics / data mining, agent-based simulations, data science / programming. The topics are part of the research program of the Networks, Technology and Innovation (NeTI) Lab. The Lab also provides (paid) research internship to the successful PhD applicants.


Barabási, A. L. (2016). Network science. Cambridge university press. 

Lőrincz L, Da Silva GKC, Hannák A, Takács D, Lengyel B, Eriksson R (2020) Global connections and the structure of skills in local co-worker networks. Applied Network Science 5:78 

Uzzi, B. (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Administrative science quarterly, 35-67.

Educational expansion and fertility decline

Proposed by Tamás Bartus, Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest


The expansion of higher education is often viewed as one of the causes of low fertility. Several explanations have been proposed for why educational expansion may result in fertility decline. First, participation in education is incompatible with childbearing, and longer participation in education leads to the postponement of family formation. Second, rapid expansion of educational opportunities lead to an “education fever”, a growing emphasize on child quality and an increase in the expected costs of childbearing. Finally, the expansion of higher education went hand in hand with with the reversal of the traditional gender gap in education, forcing more and more women to “marry down”, leading to a possible clash of conflicts over investments in children, division of household tasks, which in turn lower fertility intentions and increase partnership instability. 

The objective of the research project is to examine the relative importance of the aforementioned explanations. The quantitative analysis of available datasets (e.g., the international Generations and Gender Survey) or qualitatie studies are equally possible.


Neels, K., Murphy, M., Ní Bhrolcháin, M., Beaujouan, É., (2017): Rising Educational Participation and the Trend to Later Childbearing. Population and Development Review, 43: (4) 667-693. 

Anderson, T., Kohler, H-P. (2013), Education Fever and the East Asian Fertility Puzzle: A case study of low fertility in South Korea. Asian Population Studies, 9(2): 196-215. 

Nitsche, N., Matysiak, A., Van Bavel, J. Vignoli, D., (2015), Partners’ Educational Pairings and Fertility across Europe. Families and Societies Working Paper Series, no. 38.

Fathers’ involvement in family life

Proposed by Judit Takács (Centre for Social Sciences HAS CE) & Ivett Szalma (Institute of Economics and Public Policy, Corvinus University of Budapest; Centre for Social Sciences HAS CE)


We would like to invite applicants to join us in exploring how (residential as well as non-residential) fathers make sense of involved fatherhood in Hungary, Europe and elsewhere. In this context involved or engaged fatherhood is defined on the basis of simultaneous involvement in the labour market and as carers, recognizing that “care and masculinity need not be mutually exclusive” (Hanlon 2012: 219). 

Historically there has been more attention paid to the normative roles and activities related to breadwinning than other forms of fatherly involvement beyond arranging financial resources for the child’s well-being. The provider role that tends to overshadow other components of fatherhood, is primarily conceptualized in an economic context, and remains a major aspiration for many fathers in Europe and elsewhere, despite the growing uncertainties and – not so much employee-inspired but rather employer-dictated – flexibility of the labour market. All over Europe the impact of parenthood on employment rates for women and men is opposite: mothers tend to work less than non-mothers, while fathers tend to work more than non-fathers. This reflects the impact of the lack of congruity between gender-equal educational and employment opportunities as well as the unequal division of family responsibilities, hardly mitigated by the inadequate provision of care services. Hobson and Fahlén (2009) used European Social Survey data to highlight the inequalities among European fathers in their ability to achieve work-family balance, and found that in comparison to Western and Northern European countries, fathers in Central-Eastern European countries had the least capabilities to achieve a work-family balance due to several factors, including low employment protection, lack of father friendly policies, relatively strong male-breadwinner norms, and widespread economic precariousness.

Relatively little is known about non-resident fatherhood, which is a relevant issue because with increased divorce rates across European societies the number of single parents also increased (Régnier-Loilier 2013). However, there is also research indicating that expectations towards non-resident fathers tend to be lower than those towards resident fathers (Lindberg – Kost – Maddow-Zimet 2017).

The successful applicants can join the supervisors’ research activities at the Centre for Social Sciences and the Corvinus University of Budapest.


Dermott, E, 2008, The Intimate Father. A Sociological Analysis. Routledge: London 

Doucet, A, 2004, “It’s Almost Like I Have a Job, but I Don’t Get Paid”: Fathers at Home Reconfiguring Work, Care, and Masculinity, Fathering 2, 3, 277-303 

Hanlon, N. (2012) Masculinities, Care and Equality, Identity and Nurture in Men’s Lives. London: Palgrave Macmillen 

Hobson, B. & Fahlén, S. (2009) Competing scenarios for European fathers: Applying Sen’s capabilities and agency framework to work-family balance, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 624, 1, 214-33 

Johansson, T. & Andreasson, P. (2017) Fatherhood in Transition. Masculinity, Identity and Everyday Life, London: Palgrave Macmillen

Factors determining childlessness in Hungary and Europe

Proposed by Ivett Szalma (Institute of Economics and Public Policy, Corvinus University of Budapest; Centre for Social Sciences HAS CE) & Judit Takács (Centre for Social Sciences HAS CE)


European societies have experienced a significant change in fertility patterns: postponement of becoming parents, massive falls in fertility rates, shrinking family sizes and growing numbers of childless women. Especially from the second half of the 20th century there was increasing attention focused on the different interpretations of childless lifestyles: the changing social perception of childlessness is reflected by the fact that besides the previously almost exclusively stigmatizing approaches, “being childfree” appeared as an option of alternative lifestyles. Nowadays the issue of childlessness is connected to several psychological, social, and socio-political consequences both at the individual level and at the level of society. 

Our knowledge on factors potentially influencing childbearing is still very incomplete. We have done extensive examination of childlessness within the FamiliesAndSocietes FP7 programme (2013-2017): we have focussed on macro-level determinants of childlessness among women and men in Europe, and examined the relationship between fertility postponement, completed fertility and childlessness. Additionally, we have conducted a larger scale qualitative research project to explore the empirically detectable reasons of intentional childlessness, as well as the potential psychological, social and socio-political consequences of (intentional and non-intentional) childlessness in Hungary. This topic has several aspects which can be analysed by quantitative or qualitative means or with mixed methods, depending on the chosen subtopic. 

The ideal candidate has good skills in advanced statistics and/or in qualitative methodology, and at least a basic knowledge of demographic trends in Europe.

The successful applicants can join the supervisors’ research activities at the Centre for Social Sciences and the Corvinus University of Budapest.


Gillespie, R. (2001) Contextualizing voluntary childlessness within a postmodern model of reproduction: Implications for health and social needs. Critical Social Policy, 21: 139–159. 

Hagestad G. – Call, V.R.A. (2007): Pathways to Childlessness: A Life Course Perspective. Journal of Family Issues, 28/10. 1338–1361. 

Hird, M. J. – Abshoff K. (2010) Women without Children: A Contradiction in Terms? Journal of Comparative Family Studies 6:347-366. 

Houseknecht, S. K. (1987). Voluntary childlessness. In: M. P. Sussman and K. Steinmetz (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and the family, pp. 369-395. New York: Plenum. 

Szalma I. – Takács J. (2015) Who Remains Childless? Unrealized Fertility Plans in Hungary. Sociologicky časopis/Czech Sociological Review, 51(6): 1047-1075. 

Szalma I. – Takács J. (2018) Is There Voluntary Childlessness at All in Hungary? 309-336. In: Natalie Sappleton (Ed.) Voluntary and Involuntary: The Joys of Otherhood? Bingly: Emerald. 

Takács, J. (2013) Unattainable desires? Childbearing capabilities in early 21st century Hungary. In: L.Sz. Oláh and E. Fratczak (Eds.) Childbearing, Women’s Employment and Work-Life Balance Policies in Contemporary Europe. Basingstoke and New York, N.Y: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gender, organization, and management

Proposed by Beáta Nagy Institute of Communication and Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest 


Women’s massive entry into the labour market and their growing educational level placed the question into the focus, whether both women and men enjoy the same opportunities in employment, organisations and management. Organizational research highlighted the mechanisms how inequality regimes hinder people representing minorities to reach equal position at work. These limiting phenomena work at business and non-profit organizations alike, and have a special relevance in global comparisons. 

Potential research questions to be examined: 

1. Gender ratio in management and organization, i.e. the explanation of tough horizontal and vertical segregation 

2. Changes and challenges in organisational culture: career-oriented women and organizational reactions (with special focus to in male-dominated areas) 

3. Usefulness of soft and hard organizational policies to achieve equal gender representation in executive or top positions. 

4. Organisational responsibilities in reaching work-life balance. 


Acker (1990): Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations. Gender & Society, 4(2), 139–158. 

Acker, J. (2009): From glass ceiling to inequality regimes. Sociologie Du Travail, 51(2), 199–217. 

Ely, R. J. – Meyerson, D. E. (2000): Theories of gender in organizations: A new approach to organizational analysis and change. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22, p. 103-151. 

Kelan, E. K. (2009): Gender fatigue: The ideological dilemma of gender neutrality and discrimination in organizations, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 26 (3), pp. 197-210. 

Utzeri, M., Nagy, B., & Ilie, I. A. (2019). Gender initiatives between support and denial. Mahadevan, J., Primecz, H., & Romani, L. (Eds.). Cases in Critical Cross-Cultural Management: An Intersectional Approach to Culture (Vol. 1). Routledge  

Framing, identity and social attitudes

Proposed by Béla Janky associate professor, Department of Sociology and Media Studies at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics


The influence of elites on public attitudes toward contested social issues is a well documented phenomenon. A renewed interest in attitude polarization in contemporary democracies have urged a new wave of experimental research on elite influence on public attitudes in the past decade. Since then, substantial evidence has accumulated that information about elite positions could induce significant attitude shifts. 

Some scholars have increasingly emphasized the role of people’s feelings of identity in the influence of elites on public attitudes towards social issues: as a result of identification with a political community, people self-stereotype and conform to perceived group norms by expressing attitudes similar to the perceived typical opinion in their community. Those assumptions are based on social identity theory according to which self-stereotyping is an immediate consequence of the salience of identity. 

The doctorate student can participate in a research program which aims to explore the effects of elite positions and identity on public attitudes towards social issues. The empirical methods to be used could include survey experiment and content analysis.


Baldassarri, D., & Gelman, A. (2008). Partisans without constraint: Political polarization and trends in American public opinion. American Journal of Sociology, 114(2), 408-446. 

Bullock, J. G. (2011). Elite influence on public opinion in an informed electorate. American Political Science Review, 105(3), 496–515. 

Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E. (2009). Identity theory. Oxford University Press. 

Chong, D.–Druckman, J. N. (2007). Framing theory. Annual Review of Political Science, 10, 103–126. 

Druckman, J. N.–Jacobs, L. R. (2015). Who Governs? Presidents, Public Opinion, and Manipulation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 

Iyengar, S., Sood, G. & Lelkes, Y. (2012). Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization. Public Opinion Quarterly, 76(3), 405–431. 

Janky, B. (2019). Changing Connotations and the Evolution of the Effect of Wording: Labeling Asylum Seekers in a Political Campaign. International Journal of Public Opinion Research.

Managing differences: cross-cultural management, gender and diversity in organizations

Proposed by Henriett Primecz, Corvinus University of Budapest


Gender, race, religion within organizations across cultures, inclusion and visibility have gained much attention recently. Differences are historically learned and contextualized, and I invite doctoral research which challenge, question and problematize binaries and hierarchies of social categories, such as gender (identities), dis/abilities, ethnicities, religions, cultures and so on. I am looking for explorative organizational case studies (e.g. organizational ethnography) that will bring rich accounts of hidden power structures within the organizations. With in-depth qualitative studies based on interviews and observations in an organizational setting, power structures or other explanations can be found and contribute to better understand the intersections of social groups within organizations and societies. This can be studied with Derrida-inspired frameworks and tools such as deconstruction and poststructuralist or postmodern feminism – based on Foucault’s insights – opens up the possibility of resistance with the notion of difference. I invite proposals related – but not limited – to the above-mentioned themes.


Beauregard, T. A., Arevshatian, L., Booth, J. E. & Whittle, S. (2018) Listen carefully: transgender voices in the workplace, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(5), 857-884, DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2016.1234503 

Mahadevan, J., Primecz, H., Romani, L. (eds.) 2020: Cases in Critical Cross-Cultural Management. An Intersectional Approach to Culture, (pp. 33-45), Abingdon: Routledge 

Primecz, H., Mahadevan, J., Romani, L. (2016): Why is cross-cultural management scholarship blind to power relations? Investigating ethnicity, language, gender, and religion in power-laden contexts, International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, Vol 16(2), 127-136. DOI: 10.1177/1470595816666154. 

Zanoni, P., Janssens, M., Benschop, Y. and Nkomo, S. (2010) ‘Guest editorial: Unpacking diversity, grasping inequality: Rethinking difference through critical perspectives’, Organization, 17(1): 9-29.

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GEN.:2021.10.20. - 04:54:17